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Fossil Fuels and the Carbon Cycle

Author(s): Nancy Moreno, PhD, Barbara Tharp, MS, and Judith Dresden, MS.
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Nitrogen Cycle

A major component of the atmosphere, nitrogen is essential for all living things. However, most organisms are unable to use the gaseous forms of nitrogen present in the atmosphere. In order for nitrogen to be usable by most organisms, it must be "fixed," in other words, combined with oxygen, hydrogen or carbon to form other molecules. Nitrogen fixation can happen during rainstorms, which yields nitrate and ammonium ions. Nitrogen also can be fixed biologically by free-living and symbiotic bacteria. Leguminous plants, for example, host nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules allowing them to capture nitrogen and incorporate it into proteins and other molecules.

Unlike other organisms, nitrogen fixing bacteria are able to convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, which then can serve as raw material for the incorporation of nitrogen into other molecules. The other four important steps in the nitrogen cycle are: 1) assimilation (reduction of nitrate ions [NO3-] inside plants to ammonium ions [NH4+], which are used to manufacture proteins and other molecules; this conversion requires energy); 2) ammonification (release of excess nitrogen in the form of ammonia [NH3] and ammonium ions [NH4+] by soil-dwelling bacteria and some fungi during the decomposition of complex organic compounds such as proteins, and nucleic acids); 3) nitrification (the oxidation of ammonium ions or ammonia by free-living, soil dwelling bacteria to nitrates [NO3-]; and 4) denitrification (the conversion of nitrate to gaseous nitrogen [N2] by free-living bacteria in soil; this conversion yields energy and occurs in conditions with low levels of oxygen).

Funded by the following grant(s)

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH

My Health My World: National Dissemination
Grant Number: 5R25ES009259
The Environment as a Context for Opportunities in Schools
Grant Number: 5R25ES010698, R25ES06932

Houston Endowment Inc.

Foundations for the Future: Capitalizing on Technology to Promote Equity, Access and Quality in Elementary Science Education