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How Much Water Do Humans Need?

Author(s): Nancy P. Moreno, PhD, Barbara Z. Tharp, MS, and Judith Dresden, MS.

The Science of Water in Our Bodies

Water is a unique substance upon which all life depends. It is essential inside cells, where it provides the medium in which all chemical reactions take place. It also is needed outside cells, where it provides a mode of transport for nutrients, oxygen, wastes and other materials. 

Organisms that consist of one or just a few cells interact directly with their environments. It is relatively simple for them to obtain raw materials and excrete wastes because each cell is in contact with the outside (usually water-containing) environment. More advanced organisms depend on more complex processes to maintain a constant internal fluid environment that provides cells with the materials they need and removes waste products.


Funded by the following grant(s)

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH

The Environment as a Context for Opportunities in Schools
Grant Numbers: 5R25ES010698, R25ES06932


Houston Endowment Inc.

Houston Endowment Inc.

Foundations for the Future: Capitalizing on Technology to Promote Equity, Access and Quality in Elementary Science Education