Quantitative Methods: Part 1. Solutions and Dilutions
Weight/Weight (W/W) Solutions
Perhaps the easiest way to describe a solution is in terms of weight-in-weight (w/w). The weight of the solvent, relative to the weight of the final solution, is described as a percentage. For example, suppose you are working with a dye that is soluble in alcohol. Rather than write the instructions, "take 3 grams dye and mix with 97 grams absolute alcohol," you can describe the solution simply as 3% dye in absolute alcohol. The formula applies to any volume of solution that might be required. Three grams dye plus 97 grams alcohol will have final weight of 100 grams, so the dye winds up being 3% of the final weight. Note that the final weight is not necessarily equal to the final volume.
Aqueous weight-in-weight solutions are the easiest to prepare. Since 1 milliliter of water weighs one gram, we can measure a volume instead of weighing the solvent. A very common use of w/w formulas is with media for the culture of bacteria. Such media come in granular or powdered form, often contain agar, and often require heat in order to dissolve the components. Microbiological media, especially when they contain agar, are difficult to transfer from one vessel to another without leaving material behind. They coat the surfaces of glassware, making quite a mess. Using a w/w formula the media and water can be mixed, heated, then sterilized, all in a single container. For example, tryptic soy agar, a very rich medium used for growing a variety of bacterial species, comes with instructions to simply mix 40 grams agar with one liter (equivalent to 1 kilogram) of deionized water, without adjusting the final volume. Very little material is wasted and there is less of a mess.
- Farone, M. B. & Farone, A. L. (1999). Dilution Solutions. Kendall-Hunt. [This work is a practical student guidebook and workbook that includes descriptions of types of formulas and how to conduct dilutions, problem sets, and chapters on working with cells, viruses, nucleic acids, and proteins].
- Gerstein, A. (Ed.). (2001). Molecular Biology Problem Solver. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Reed, R., Holmes, D., Weyers, J., & Jones, A. (2003). Practical Skills in Biomolecular Sciences (2nd ed.). Pearson/Prentice Hall.
- Scopes, R. K. (1994). Protein Purification: Principles and Practice (3rd ed.). Springer-Verlag.
- Seidman, L. A. & Moore, C. J. (2000). Basic Laboratory Methods for Biotechnology. Prentice-Hall. [This handbook thoroughly describes a broad range of laboratory methods and is written at a level suitable for students. It serves as a good general reference for laboratory techniques]
- Caprette, D. (2006). Filmed demonstration images. Center for Educational Outreach. Houston, Tx: Baylor College of Medicine.
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