Overview of the Male Reproductive System
Muscle Wasting Countermeasure Studies for NSBRI
The two key areas for countermeasures covered in this presentation are radiation-enhanced cancer and muscle wasting. Let’s start with countermeasures against muscle wasting.
To maintain muscle mass on Earth, muscle protein synthesis must equal muscle protein breakdown. This is not true in space, where protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis, due to a number of factors, including inactivity (caused in large part by the microgravity environment), which does not place stress on the muscles. In addition, a depression in energy intake in space contributes to suboptimal nutrition and an increase in catabolic hormones, such as cortisol, as a reaction to stress. To counteract these negative effects on muscle mass and strength, it is necessary to develop countermeasures that supply optimal nutrition and appropriate exercise, and perhaps include anabolic agents.
- Paddon-Jones, D., Sheffield-Moore, M., Urban, E. J., Sanford, A. P., Aarsland, A., Wolfe, R.R., Ferrando, A.A. (2004). Essential amino acid and carbohydrate supplementation ameliorates muscle protein loss in humans during 28 days bedrest. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 89, 4351-4358. Unpublished image, by permission of D. Paddon-Jones.
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