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Viruses

Author(s): Wah Chiu, PhD, and Matthew Dougherty, MS. Slides: Sonia Rahmati Clayton, PhD, and Colleen Krockenberger, BS.

Viruses - Examples

Transcript from "Viruses," National Center for Macromolecular Imaging
Virologists have identified about 4,000 viruses. Viruses are different from bacteria, fungi, algae, plants and animals, but viruses are parasites to all of them. To copy themselves and grow, they must first infect and hijack a cell. It's their structure that makes it possible for them to steal the life from a cell and use it. Though mostly genetic material, viruses usually have other chemicals such as sugars, fats and proteins. Of the identified viruses, more than one thousand infect people.

Additional Virus information:
O’Nyong-Nyong, a member of Togaviridae family was initially isolated in Uganda in 1959. Mosquitoes are the carriers of this virus that leads to high fever, arthritis and rash. (McGill, P. E., & Njobvu, P. D. (2001) Rheumatology in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical Rheumatology, 20, 163-167)

Hepatitis A, B, and C:  Hepatitis refers to many types of diseases that cause liver inflammation.
Hepatitis A is a virus transmitted through contaminated food or water or direct contact with a person who already is infected with the virus and is the mildest form of viral hepatitis infections. (U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hepatitis A. NIH. Retrieved 03/12/2007 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000278.htm).

Hepatitis B is a virus that is transmitted by contacting blood and other body fluids from a person already infected with the virus. (U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hepatitis B. NIH. Retrieved 03/12/2007 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000279.htm).

Hepatitis C is a virus that also is transmitted through body fluids and is the one of the leading causes for the need for a liver transplant in the United States. (U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hepatitis C. NIH. Retrieved 03/12/2007 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000284.htm).

Rabies is a curable viral disease found in mammals that is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Most deaths associated with Rabies are due to failure to seek prompt medical attention.(CDC. Rabies. Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/introduction/intro.htm)

Polio, also known as Poliomyelitis, is caused by Poliovirus. Polio affects the spinal cord and may lead to paralysis. Transmission occurs by person-to-person contact, often via a fecal-oral or oral-oral route. (CDC. Poliomyelitis. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/pink/polio.pdf)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is transmitted by contact with bodily fluids from an infected person. HIV destroys specific cells that are important for normal function of the immune system, often, but not always, resulting in the development of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (CDC. HIV/AIDS. Retrieved 03/19/07 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/)

Lassa Fever is an acute viral infection named after the town in Nigeria where the first cases were discovered in 1969. Although it can be spread from person-to-person, the primary host is the Mastomys rodent (multimammate rat). These rodents are often found in human homes, greatly increasing the chance of passing the virus from rodent to humans. (CDC. Lassa fever. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/lassaf.htm)

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease that can be caused by four different Dengue virus serotypes. The illness can result in a range of clinical syndromes from mild to severe and can be fatal. (CDC. Dengue fever. Retrieved 03/21/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue/facts.htm)

Marburg causes a rare, but severe, hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates. This virus is in the same family as Ebola virus. The first outbreak in 1967 resulted from exposure to African Green Monkeys and their tissue. The monkeys had been imported to Marburg, Germany, for research purposes and for use in preparing polio vaccine. (CDC. Questions and answers about Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/marburg/qa.htm)

Yellow Fever is caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans through the bite of a female mosquito of several species. The disease only occurs in Africa and South America. Travelers to these regions are required to be vaccinated. (CDC. Yellow fever: Disease and vaccine. Retrieved 03/21/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/yellowfever/index.htm, and http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs100/en/)
 
Rubella or German Measles is a viral disease that causes acute fever and rash in the infected individual. Rubella can be transmitted by a cough or sneeze of an infected person. The vaccine for the virus is included in the MMR immunization. (CDC. Rubella: In short. Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/nip/diseases/rubella/vac-chart.htm)

Mumps is an acute viral disease resulting in fever, muscle ache, and swelling of salivary glands. It is transmitted by direct contact with saliva or respiratory secretions of an infected individual. The vaccine for the Mumps virus is included in the MMR immunization. (CDC. Mumps. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/nip/diseases/mumps/vac-chart.htm)

Measles is a highly contagious viral disease characterized by a red, blotchy rash. The vaccine for the Measles virus is included in the MMR immunization. While no longer common in the United States, travelers need to be aware that measles is a common disease in many countries. (CDC. (2005). Measles. Traveler’s Health: Yellow Book 2005-2006. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=measles.htm)

Hantaan is a viral disease transmitted by rats that causes “hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome” (HFRS). Common in Asia, particularly in Korea, more than 2000 cases were reported during the Korean war among the United Nations troops. Since urban rats are almost always infected with the virus, it is thought that ships harboring rats caused world wide dispersal of the virus. (Brooks, G. F., Butel, J. S., & Morse, S. A. (2004). Jawetz, Melnick, & Adelberg’s medical microbiology (23rd ed.). McGraw-Hill.)

Epstein Barr, EBV, or Epstein Barr Virus, is considered the most common human virus, infecting most people at some point in their lives. It is found worldwide. EBV is the cause of infectious mononucleosis in adolescents and young adults. Once infected, EBV will establish a dormant infection. Rarely, it can play a role in the emergence of Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Transmission of EBV requires contact with the saliva of a person who is infected while the virus is in its active form (CDC. Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/diseases/ebv.htm)

Cowpox is a viral skin disease that is very rarely seen today in humans. In 1798, Edward Jenner used cowpox to create the first immunization to smallpox (a related disease) by scratching the fluid from cowpox sores into the skin of healthy people. Jenner noticed that people who had been infected with cowpox were not only immune to further infections by cowpox, but also, to smallpox. (Levin, N. A. (2007). Cowpox infection, Human. Retrieved 05/08/2007 from http://www.emedicine.com/derm/topic87.htm)

Influenza virus cause respiratory infections that range from mild to severe and can lead to death. Typically spread from human-to-human, influenza is combated each year through vaccines prepared to match viral strains predicted to be prevalent during the coming year. (CDC. Influenza (flu). Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/flu)

The Ebola virus causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever, an often fatal disease that affects humans and primates. Much is unknown about this virus, but it is believed to originate from an animal host that is native to the African continent. There is currently no treatment for infection. (CDC. Questions and answers about Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/qa.htm)
 
The Omsk virus is transmitted through an infected tick bite and causes neurological diseases and haemorrhagic fever. (Charrel, R. N., Attoui, H., Butenko, A. M., Clegg, J. C., Deubel, V., Frolova, T. V., Gould, E. A., Gritsun, T. S., Heinz, F. X., Labuda, M., Lashkevich, V. A., Loktev, V., Lundkvist, A., Lvov, D. V., Mandl, C. W., Niedrig, M., Papa, A., Petrov, V. S., Plyusnin, A., Randolph, S., Suss, J., Zlobin, V. I., & de Lamballerie, X. (2004) Tick-borne virus diseases of human interest in Europe. Clinical Microbiology Infection, 10(12), 1040-1055.)

The Junin virus (in the same family as the Lassa virus, arenavirus) causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Viruses in this family usually are associated with a specific rodent species. (Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/arena.htm)

A rabies-like virus, Duvenhage virus, is associated with bats in Africa and leads to rabies-like disease in humans. (Duvenhage virus. Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol12no12/06-0764.htm)

The Oropouche virus is an important arthropod-borne virus that infects humans and causes Oropouche fever. It is a health threat in subtropical areas of South and Center America (Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol11no10/05-0464.htm)

The Orf virus that infects humans is associated with sheep, goats and other small ruminants. Orf causes ulcerative lesions in infected individuals. (Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5503a1.htm)

The Coxsackievirus causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, typically in young children. It is a mild disease that appears as a rash with very small blisters on the skin. (U.S. National Library of Medicine. Hand-foot-mouth disease. NIH. Retrieved 03/13/2007 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000965.htm)

A rare viral fever, Chikungunya, is spread by mosquitoes to humans. Disease symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, and muscle and joint pain. (Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/Chikungunya/chikvfact.htm)

Bunyamwera viruses are associated with congenial defects in humans. (Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol1no4/calishr3.htm)

Herpes: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has two froms: Type I, which generally causes fever blisters and cold sores in the mouth and on the lips; Type II, which is associated with the genital area, but can infect the mouth. (Retrieved 03/19/2007 from http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdherp.htm)


Funded by the following grant(s)

Virus images courtesy of Wah Chiu, PhD, National Center for Macromolecular Imaging at Baylor College of Medicine. Funding for the images provided by NCMI, NIH.